Blog page 360



                                               

Inculpatory evidence

Inculpatory evidence is evidence that shows, or tends to show, a persons involvement in an act, or evidence that can establish guilt. In criminal law, the prosecution has a duty to provide all evidence to the defense, whether it favors the prosec ...

                                               

Sealed indictment

An indictment is a criminal accusation that a person has committed a crime. In jurisdictions that use the concept of felonies, the most serious criminal offence is a felony; jurisdictions that do not use the felonies concept often use that of an ...

                                               

Indispensable element test

The indispensable element test is a standard for distinguishing preparation and attempt in a criminal case. A person who does every act needed to commit a crime, except for one necessary or indispensable element, is not guilty of having made an a ...

                                               

Informant

An informant is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency. The term is usually used within the law enforcement world, where they are officially known as confidential human source, cooperating witness ...

                                               

Islamic criminal jurisprudence

Islamic criminal law is criminal law in accordance with Sharia. Strictly speaking, Islamic law does not have a distinct corpus of "criminal law." It divides crimes into three different categories depending on the offense – Hudud ; Qisas ; and Taz ...

                                               

Islamic criminal law in Aceh

The province of Aceh in Indonesia enforces some provisions of Islamic criminal law, the sole Indonesian province to do so. In Aceh, Islamic criminal law is called jinayat. The laws that implement it are called Qanun Jinayat or Hukum Jinayat, roug ...

                                               

Judicial discretion

Judicial discretion is the power of the judiciary to make some legal decisions according to their discretion. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the ability of judges to exercise discretion is an aspect of judicial independence. Wher ...

                                               

Jungle justice

Jungle justice or mob justice is a form of public extrajudicial killings in Sub-Saharan Africa, most notably Nigeria and Cameroon, where an alleged criminal is humiliated, beaten or summarily executed by a crowd or vigilantes. Treatments can vary ...

                                               

Jury nullification

Jury nullification or a perverse verdict generally occurs when members of a criminal trial jury believe that a defendant is guilty, but choose to acquit the defendant anyway because the jurors also believe that the law itself is unjust, that the ...

                                               

Knowledge (legal construct)

In law, knowledge is one of the degrees of mens rea that constitute part of a crime. For example, in English law, the offense of knowingly being a passenger in a vehicle taken without consent requires that the prosecution prove, not only that the ...

                                               

Larceny

Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking or theft of the personal property of another person or business. It was an offence under the common law of England and became an offence in jurisdictions which incorporated the common law of Englan ...

                                               

Criminal defenses

In the field of criminal law, there are a variety of conditions that will tend to negate elements of a crime, known as defenses. The label may be apt in jurisdictions where the accused may be assigned some burden before a tribunal. However, in ma ...

                                               

LegalShield

LegalShield is an American corporation that sells legal service products through multi-level marketing in the United States and Canada. Harland Stonecipher founded the company in Ada, Oklahoma on August 8, 1972 as the Sportsmans Motor Club. In 19 ...

                                               

Legitimate defense of honor

Legitimate defense of honor is a legal term in Brazilian jurisprudence, used by the defense to justify the defendants acts as crimes of passion, attributing the motivating factor of the crime to the behavior of the victim. This justification has ...

                                               

Lese majeste in Norway

Lese majeste in Norway majestatis, etc) was judicially based and defined in Norways 1902 Penal Code, which provided fines or prison for this crime. Often related to political conflicts, accusations of lese majeste were frequent in the 17th, 18th, ...

                                               

Lesser included offense

In criminal law, a lesser included offense is a crime for which all of the elements necessary to impose liability are also elements found in a more serious crime. It is also used in non-criminal violations of law, such as certain classes of traff ...

                                               

Lying in wait

In criminal law, lying in wait refers to the act of hiding and waiting for an individual with the intent to kill that person or inflict serious bodily harm to that person. Because lying in wait involves premeditation, some jurisdictions have esta ...

                                               

Malum in se

Malum in se is a Latin phrase meaning wrong or evil in itself. The phrase is used to refer to conduct assessed as sinful or inherently wrong by nature, independent of regulations governing the conduct. It is distinguished from malum prohibitum, w ...

                                               

Malum prohibitum

Malum prohibitum is a Latin phrase used in law to refer to conduct that constitutes an unlawful act only by virtue of statute, as opposed to conduct that is evil in and of itself, or malum in se. Conduct that is so clearly violative of societys s ...

                                               

Manslaughter

Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder. The distinction between murder and manslaughter is sometimes said to have first been made by the ancient Athenian lawmaker Draco in the 7th centu ...

                                               

Manslaughter (United States law)

Manslaughter is a crime in the United States. Definitions can vary among jurisdictions, but manslaughter is invariably the act of causing the death of another person in a manner less culpable than murder.

                                               

Marry-your-rapist law

A marry-your-rapist law, marry-the-rapist law or rape-marriage law is a law regarding rape that exonerates a man from prosecution for rape, sexual assault, statutory rape, abduction or similar acts if the offender marries his female victim, or in ...

                                               

Medical amnesty policy

Medical Amnesty Policies are laws or acts enacted protecting from liability those who seek medical attention as a result of illegal actions. Such policies have been developing most notably in colleges in the United States regarding alcohol use by ...

                                               

Mens rea

Mens rea is the mental element of a persons intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that ones action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed. It is a necessary element of many crimes. The standard common law test of criminal liabi ...

                                               

Mental health court

Mental health courts link offenders who would ordinarily be prison-bound to long-term community-based treatment. They rely on mental health assessments, individualized treatment plans, and ongoing judicial monitoring to address both the mental he ...

                                               

Misappropriation

In law, misappropriation is the unauthorized use of anothers name, likeness, or identity without that persons permission, resulting in harm to that person. Another use of the word refers to intentional and illegal use of property or funds; it can ...

                                               

Misdemeanor

A misdemeanor is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished less severely than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions and regulatory offences. Many misdemeanors are ...

                                               

Mitigating factor

In criminal law, a mitigating factor, also known as extenuating circumstances, is any information or evidence presented to the court regarding the defendant or the circumstances of the crime that might result in reduced charges or a lesser senten ...

                                               

Moral certainty

Moral certainty is a concept of intuitive probability. It means a very high degree of probability, sufficient for action, but short of absolute or mathematical certainty.

                                               

Motive (law)

A motive is the cause that moves people to induce a certain action. In criminal law, motive in itself is not an element of any given crime; however, the legal system typically allows motive to be proven to make plausible the accuseds reasons for ...

                                               

Necessity (criminal law)

In the criminal law of many nations, necessity may be either a possible justification or an exculpation for breaking the law. Defendants seeking to rely on this defense argue that they should not be held liable for their actions as a crime becaus ...

                                               

Necessity and duress

Necessity and duress are different defenses in a criminal case. The defense of duress applies when another person threatens imminent harm if defendant did not act to commit the crime. The defense of necessity applies when defendant is forced by n ...

                                               

Nulla poena sine lege

Nulla poena sine lege is a legal principle, requiring that one cannot be punished for doing something that is not prohibited by law. This principle is accepted and codified in modern democratic states as a basic requirement of the rule of law. It ...

                                               

Omission (law)

An omission is a failure to act, which generally attracts different legal consequences from positive conduct. In the criminal law, an omission will constitute an actus reus and give rise to liability only when the law imposes a duty to act and th ...

                                               

Outlaw

In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is legally empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one ...

                                               

Overt act

In criminal law, an overt act is the one that can be clearly proved by evidence and from which criminal intent can be inferred, as opposed to a mere intention in the mind to commit a crime. Such an act, even if innocent per se, can potentially be ...

                                               

Parole

Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to abide by certain conditions, originating from the French word parole. The term became associated during the Middle Ages with the release of prisoners who gave their word. This differs greatl ...

                                               

Payola

Payola, in the music industry, is the illegal practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the broadcast of recordings on commercial radio in which the song is presented as being part of the normal days broadcast, without annou ...

                                               

Penal law (British)

In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disab ...

                                               

Penal notice

In civil procedure a penal notice is a warning endorsed on a court order, notifying the recipient that he or she is liable to committal to prison or to pay a fine for breach of the order. In the case of a company or corporation, their assets may ...

                                               

Penology

Penology is a sub-component of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of ...

                                               

People v. Sattlekau

People v. Sattlekau, Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, 12 App. Div. 42, 104 N.Y.S. 805, is a criminal case that established that if one false representation is plead in the indictment, at trial, evidence of other false representation ...

                                               

Per minas

Per minas, in English Common Law, is to engage in behaviour "by means of menaces or threats". The term comes from Latin. Per minas has been used as a defence of duress to certain crimes, as affecting the element of mens rea. William Blackstone, t ...

                                               

Perpetrator-by-means

In criminal law, a perpetrator-by-means is a person who manipulates a perpetrator into committing a crime by exploiting their mental health condition, other excusable condition, or by duress. The term is contrasted with accomplice.

                                               

Physical proximity doctrine

The physical proximity doctrine is a standard in criminal law for distinguishing between preparation and attempt. "Physical" refers to the physical element of a criminal act, as distinguished from the mental element of a guilty mind. When a perso ...

                                               

Plea bargain

The plea bargain is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty or nolo contendere to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor. This may mean that ...

                                               

Power of arrest

The power of arrest is a mandate given by a central authority that allows an individual to remove a criminals liberty. The power of arrest can also be used to protect a person, or persons from harm or to protect damage to property. However, in ma ...

                                               

Preventive detention

There is no universally agreed definition of preventive detention, and multiple types of detention are sometimes considered a form of preventive detention. Usually," preventive detention” is the detention of a convicted criminal who has served th ...

                                               

Prisoner

A prisoner is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or by forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to serving a prison sentence in a prison. This term does not apply to defend ...

                                               

Privilege revocation (law)

In law the general term privilege revocation is often used when discussing some paper, such as a drivers licence, being voided after a condition is met by the holder.

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →