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Zumrud Gulu-zade

Zumrud Gulu-zade is an Azerbaijani professor of philosophy at the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Zumrud Gulu-zade has written many books on philosophy in the Azerbaijani, Turkish, English and Russian languages.


Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher in the Age of Enlightenment. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unkno ...


Patrick Laude

Patrick Laude is a scholar, author and teacher. His works deal with the relationship between mysticism, symbolism and poetry, as well as focusing on contemporary spiritual figures such as Simone Weil, Louis Massignon and Frithjof Schuon.


Carlos Perez Soto

Carlos Perez Soto is a Chilean teacher of physics, lecturer at various universities and a social sciences researcher, author of works of a broad thematic spectrum: philosophy of science and epistemology, political philosophy and Marxism, history ...


Daniel N. Robinson

Daniel N. Robinson was an American psychologist who was a professor of psychology at Georgetown University and later in his life became a fellow of the faculty of philosophy at Oxford University.


Fernando Savater

Born in San Sebastian, he was an Ethics professor at the University of the Basque Country for over a decade. Presently he is a Philosophy professor at the Complutense University of Madrid. He has won several accolades for his literary work, which ...


Franz August Schmolders

Schmolders studied from 1830 on philosophy and theology at the University of Bonn. Under the influence of professors Christian August Brandis, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Freytag, Christian Lassen and August Wilhelm Schlegel, he soon concentrated on ...


Chee Soo

Chee Soo was an author of books about the philosophy of Taoism and in particular Lee-style tai chi chuan, Qigong, Chang Ming, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Feng Shou Hand of the Wind Kung Fu.


Lysander Spooner

Lysander Spooner was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, individualist anarchist, legal theorist, a member of the socialist First International and entrepreneur of the 19th century. Spooner was a ...


Olaf Stapledon

William Olaf Stapledon – known as Olaf Stapledon – was a British philosopher and author of science fiction. In 2014, he was inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame.


Placide Tempels

Placide Frans Tempels was a Belgian Franciscan missionary in the Congo who became famous for his book Bantu Philosophy.


Johan Rudolph Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch statesman of a liberal bent, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century. In 1848, he virtually single-handedly drafted the revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands, giving less power ...


Sophia Wadia

Sophia Wadia, nee Sophia Camacho, was a Colombian-born naturalized Indian theosophist, litterateur, the founder of PEN All India Centre and the founder editor of its journal, The Indian PEN. She also cofounded The Indian Institute of World Cultur ...


Nigel Warburton

Nigel Warburton is a British philosopher. He is best known as a populariser of philosophy, having written a number of books in the genre, but he has also written academic works in aesthetics and applied ethics.


Anna Willess Williams

Anna Willess Williams was a teacher and philosophical writer best known as the model for George T. Morgans silver dollar design, popularly known as the Morgan dollar.


Jindrich Zeleny

He was born in Bitovany, Czech Republic in 1922 and attended school in Chrudim and Hradec Kralove. In 1948, Zeleny received a Ph.D. in philosophy and sociology from Charles University in Prague.


Nick Zhang

Nick Zhang ; born 30 August 1963) is CEO of Wuzhen Institute and a writer. In 2017, his book A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence was awarded Top 10 Books of Southern Metropolis Daily. In 2018, he won Wu Wenjun Artificial Intelligence Scien ...


12th century in philosophy

The Incoherence of the Incoherence, the landmark harmonization of philosophy and faith by Averroes Sic et Non, Peter Abelards scholastic study of apparent contradictions in Christian theology


13th century in philosophy


14th century in philosophy

Abner of Burgos c. 1270 – c. 1347. Jewish philosopher that converted to Christianity, and polemical writer. Pietro dAbano c. 1257 – c. 1316. Italian philosopher, astrologer, physician and professor of medicine in Padua.


15th century in philosophy

1433 – Ambrogio Traversari completed his translation of Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 1433 – Baverius de Bonittis starts teaching philosophy and logic at the University of Bologna


16th-century philosophy

16th-century philosophy is generally regarded as the later part of Renaissance philosophy. Early 16th-century philosophy is often called the High Renaissance and is considered to succeed the Renaissance philosophy era and precede the Age of Ratio ...


1000-Word Philosophy

1000-Word Philosophy is an online philosophy anthology that publishes introductory 1000-word essays on philosophical topics. The project was created in 2014 by Andrew D. Chapman, a philosophy lecturer at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Since ...


1658 in philosophy


1743 in philosophy


1926 in philosophy

Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy 1926 Jan Smuts, Holism and Evolution 1926 Nicolai Hartmann, Ethik 1926 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, The Hindu View of Life 1926


1983 in philosophy

John Searle, Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities Vilem Flusser, Towards a Philosophy of Photography Keiji Nishitani, Religion and Nothingness Peter Sloterdijk, Critique of Cynical Reason


1991 in philosophy

The philosophy magazine Philosophy Now was founded in 1991. According to the Philosophy Documentation Center it "has become the most widely read philosophy publication in the English-speaking world".


2016 in philosophy

Charles Taylor wins the inaugural million-dollar Berggruen Prize for Philosophy, awarded to "a thinker whose ideas are of broad significance for shaping human self-understanding and the advancement of humanity," in a ceremony at the New York Publ ...


2017 in philosophy

15-16 December – a conference in memory of Derek Parfit is held at Rutgers University, organized jointly with New York University. Hypatia transracialism controversy Onora ONeill wins the 2017 Berggruen Prize.


Absolute theory

In philosophy, absolute theory usually refers to a theory based on concepts that exist independently of other concepts and objects. The absolute point of view was advocated in physics by Isaac Newton. It is one of the traditional views of space a ...



Abstractionism is the theory that the mind obtains some or all of its concepts by abstracting them from concepts it already has, or from experience. One may, for example, abstract green from a set of experiences which involve green along with oth ...


Accidental necessity

In philosophy and logic, accidental necessity, often stated in its Latin form, necessitas per accidens, refers to the necessity attributed to the past by certain views of time. It is a controversial concept: its supporters argue that it has intui ...


Actus primus

Actus primus is a technical expression used in scholastic philosophy. The Latin word actus means determination, complement. In every being there are many actualities, which are subordinated. Thus existence supposes essence; power supposes existen ...


Ad nauseam

Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued to the point of nausea. For example, "this has been discussed ad nauseam indicates that the topic has been discussed extensively and those involved have grown sick of ...


Agathos kai sophos

Agathos kai sophos is a phrase coined by Plato, which literally means "good and wise" in Greek. The Athenians used this phrase to describe the qualities of an honest man. Plato apparently derived this phrase from an earlier kalos kagathos - liter ...



Ahistoricism refers to a lack of concern for history, historical development, or tradition. Charges of ahistoricism are frequently critical, implying that the subject is historically inaccurate or ignorant for example, an ahistorical attitude. It ...



Ambedkarism is a body of ideas inspired by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. His philosophy has been used in India as a basis for political campaigning. His philosophy was using socio-politics as a tool to achieve the end result that is social justice and ...



Amour-propre. It means love - "amour" and self - "propre". By definition it can mean loving oneself whereas in philosophy it is a debated theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that esteem must be found by the approval of others first. Rousseau contrast ...



Anangeon, also known as dicaeologia, is a specious method of argument, where the basis lies in inevitability or necessity. For example, "Yes, I missed school today, but I was sick and wouldnt have learned anything anyway" - this argument ignores ...



Anti-individualism is an approach to linguistic meaning in philosophy, the philosophy of psychology, and linguistics. The proponents arguing for anti-individualism in these areas have in common the view that what seems to be internal to the indiv ...


The Anti-Oedipus Papers

The Anti-Oedipus Papers is a collection of journal entries and notes written between 1969 and 1973 by the French philosopher and psychotherapist Felix Guattari. These notes, addressed to Gilles Deleuze by Guattari in preparation for Anti-Oedipus, ...



Apophantic is a term Aristotle coined to mean a specific type of declaratory statement that can determine the truth or falsity of a logical proposition or phenomenon. It was adopted by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger as part of phenomenology. ...



Arborescent is a term used by the French thinkers Deleuze and Guattari to characterize thinking marked by insistence on totalizing principles, binarism, and dualism. The term, first used in A Thousand Plateaus where it was opposed to the rhizome, ...


Argument from degree

The argument from degrees, also known as the degrees of perfection argument or the henological argument is an argument for the existence of God first proposed by mediaeval Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas as one of the five ways to philos ...



Associationism is the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one mental state with its successor states. It holds that all mental processes are made up of discrete psychological elements and their combinations, which are believe ...


At the Existentialist Cafe

At the Existentialist Cafe: Freedom, Being, and Apricot Cocktails is a 2016 book written by Sarah Bakewell that covers the philosophy and history of the 20th century movement existentialism. The book provides a very accurate account of the modern ...


Belief–desire–intention model

The belief–desire–intention model of human practical reasoning was developed by Michael Bratman as a way of explaining future-directed intention. BDI is fundamentally reliant on folk psychology the theory theory, which is the notion that our ment ...



Biofacticity is a philosophical concept that allows to identify a living object as a so-called biofact, i.e. a semi-natural living entity which has been biotechnically interfered during its life-span such as transgenic plants or cloned organisms. ...


Blockhead (thought experiment)

Blockhead is the name of a theoretical computer system invented as part of a thought experiment by philosopher Ned Block, which appeared in a paper titled "Psychologism and Behaviorism". Block did not name the computer in the paper.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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