Blog page 792



                                               

Automatic and controlled processes

Automatic and controlled processes are the two categories of cognitive processing. All cognitive processes fall into one or both of those two categories. The amounts of "processing power", attention, and effort a process requires is the primary f ...

                                               

Bayesian cognitive science

Bayesian Cognitive Science is an approach to cognitive science concerned with the rational analysis of cognition through the use of Bayesian inference and cognitive modeling. The term "computational" refers to the computational level of analysis ...

                                               

BELBIC

In recent years, the use of biologically inspired methods such as the evolutionary algorithm have been increasingly employed to solve and analyze complex computational problems. BELBIC is one such controller which is proposed by Caro Lucas, Dania ...

                                               

Bi-directional hypothesis of language and action

The bi-directional hypothesis of language and action proposes that the sensorimotor and language comprehension areas of the brain exert reciprocal influence over one another. This hypothesis argues that areas of the brain involved in movement and ...

                                               

Body schema

Body schema is a concept used in several disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, sports medicine, and robotics. The neurologist Sir Henry Head originally defined it as a postural model of the body that actively organizes and ...

                                               

Bongard problem

A Bongard problem is a kind of puzzle invented by the Russian computer scientist Mikhail Moiseevich Bongard, probably in the mid-1960s. They were published in his 1967 book on pattern recognition. The objective is to spot the differences between ...

                                               

Bouba/kiki effect

The bouba/kiki effect is a non-arbitrary mapping between speech sounds and the visual shape of objects. This effect was first observed by German-American psychologist Wolfgang Kohler in 1929. In psychological experiments first conducted on the is ...

                                               

Brown–Peterson task

In cognitive psychology, Brown–Peterson task refers to a cognitive exercise purposed for testing the limits of working memory capacity. The task is named for two notable experiments published in the 1950s in which it was first documented, the fir ...

                                               

Candle problem

The candle problem or candle task, also known as Dunckers candle problem, is a cognitive performance test, measuring the influence of functional fixedness on a participants problem solving capabilities. The test was created by Gestalt psychologis ...

                                               

Category utility

Category utility is a measure of "category goodness" defined in Gluck & Corter and Corter & Gluck. It attempts to maximize both the probability that two objects in the same category have attribute values in common, and the probability that object ...

                                               

Glasser's choice theory

The term choice theory is the work of William Glasser, MD, author of the book so named, and is the culmination of some 50 years of theory and practice in psychology and counselling.

                                               

Cognitive approaches to grammar

Cognitive approaches to grammar are theories of grammar that relate grammar to mental processes and structures in human cognition. While Chomskys theories of generative grammar are the most influential in most areas of linguistics, other theories ...

                                               

Cognitive computing

Cognitive computing describes technology platforms that, broadly speaking, are based on the scientific disciplines of artificial intelligence and signal processing. These platforms encompass machine learning, reasoning, natural language processin ...

                                               

Cognitive ecology

Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena within social and natural contexts. It is an integrative perspective drawing from aspects of ecological psychology, cognitive science, evolutionary ecology and anthropology. Notions of domain- ...

                                               

Cognitive ethology

Cognitive ethology is a branch of ethology concerned with the influence of conscious awareness and intention on the behaviour of an animal. Donald Griffin, a zoology professor in the United States, set up the foundations for researches in the cog ...

                                               

Cognitive inhibition

Cognitive inhibition refers to the minds ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task/process at hand or to the minds current state. Cognitive inhibition can be done either in whole or in part, intentionally or otherwise. Cognitive ...

                                               

Cognitive map

A cognitive map is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. ...

                                               

Cognitive poetics

Cognitive poetics is a school of literary criticism that applies the principles of cognitive science, particularly cognitive psychology, to the interpretation of literary texts. It has ties to reader-response criticism, and also has a grounding i ...

                                               

Cognitive revolution

The cognitive revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950s as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes. It later became known collectively as cognitive science. The relevant areas of interchange were between the ...

                                               

Cognitive semantics

Cognitive semantics is part of the cognitive linguistics movement. Semantics is the study of linguistic meaning. Cognitive semantics holds that language is part of a more general human cognitive ability, and can therefore only describe the world ...

                                               

Cognitive specialization

Cognitive specialization suggests that certain behaviors, often in the domain of social communication, are passed on to offspring and refined to be maximally beneficial by the process of natural selection. Specializations serve an adaptive purpos ...

                                               

Cognitive Systems Research

Cognitive Systems Research is a scientific journal that covers all topics in the study of cognitive science, both natural and artificial cognitive systems. Its founding editor-in-chiefs were Ron Sun, Vasant Honavar, and Gregg Oden. It is publishe ...

                                               

Cognitive Theory of Inquiry Teaching

The Cognitive Theory of Inquiry Teaching, also referred to as the Cognitive Theory of Interactive Teaching, was developed by Allan Collins and Albert L. Stevens. Allan Collins was a chief scientist at Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., a research firm ...

                                               

Cognitive tuning

David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel discovered that mammalian brains contained specific neural cortical columns which were attuned to specific spatial frequencies, specific colors, specific shapes, specific motions. Thus the brain could be viewed as a ...

                                               

Cognitivism (psychology)

In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. Cognitive psychology derived i ...

                                               

Common coding theory

Common coding theory is a cognitive psychology theory describing how perceptual representations and motor representations are linked. The theory claims that there is a shared representation for both perception and action. More important, seeing a ...

                                               

Computational human modeling

Computational human modeling is an interdisciplinary computational science that links the diverse fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computer vision with machine learning, mathematics, and cognitive psychology. Computationa ...

                                               

Computational-representational understanding of mind

Computational representational understanding of mind is a hypothesis in cognitive science which proposes that thinking is performed by computations operating on representations. This hypothesis assumes that the mind has mental representations ana ...

                                               

Conceptual metaphor

In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another. An example of this is the understanding of quantity in terms of directionality or the unders ...

                                               

Congruence bias

Congruence bias is a type of cognitive bias similar to confirmation bias. Congruence bias occurs due to peoples overreliance on directly testing a given hypothesis as well as neglecting indirect testing.

                                               

Connectionism

Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science that hopes to explain mental phenomena using artificial neural networks. Connectionism presents a cognitive theory based on simultaneously occurring, distributed signal activity via ...

                                               

Context-based model of minimal counterintuitiveness

The context-based model of the counterintuitiveness effect is a cognitive model of The Minimal Counterintuitiveness Effect i.e., the finding by many cognitive scientists of religion that minimally counterintuitive concepts are more memorable for ...

                                               

Contiguity (psychology)

In cognitive science, association by contiguity is the principle that ideas, memories, and experiences are linked when one is frequently experienced with the other. For example, if you constantly see a knife and a fork together they become linked ...

                                               

Critical period hypothesis

The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal t ...

                                               

Cross-battery assessment

Cross-battery assessment is the process by which psychologists use information from multiple test batteries to help guide diagnostic decisions and to gain a fuller picture of an individual’s cognitive abilities than can be ascertained through the ...

                                               

Crosslinguistic influence

Crosslinguistic influence refers to the different ways in which one language can affect another within an individual speaker. It typically involves two languages that can affect one another in a bilingual speaker. An example of CLI is the influen ...

                                               

Cue validity

Cue validity is the conditional probability that an object falls in a particular category given a particular feature or cue. The term was popularized by Beach, Reed and especially by Eleanor Rosch in her investigations of the acquisition of so-ca ...

                                               

Decision field theory

Decision field theory is a dynamic-cognitive approach to human decision making. It is a cognitive model that describes how people actually make decisions rather than a rational or normative theory that prescribes what people should or ought to do ...

                                               

Direct and indirect realism

The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representational realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience; the epistemological question of whether the ...

                                               

Dissociation (neuropsychology)

In neuropsychology, dissociation involves identifying the neural substrate of a particular brain function through identification of case studies, neuroimaging, or neuropsychological testing.

                                               

Distributed cognition

Distributed cognition is an approach to cognitive science research that deploys models of the extended mind by taking as the fundamental unit of analysis "a collection of individuals and artifacts and their relations to each other in a particular ...

                                               

Dynamicism

Dynamicism, also termed the dynamic hypothesis or the dynamic hypothesis in cognitive science or dynamic cognition, is a new approach in cognitive science exemplified by the work of philosopher Tim van Gelder. It argues that differential equation ...

                                               

East Pole–West Pole divide

The East Pole–West Pole divide in the fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience is an intellectual schism between researchers subscribing to the nativist and empiricist schools of thought. The term arose from the fact that much of ...

                                               

Einstellung effect

Einstellung is the development of a mechanized state of mind. Often called a problem solving set, Einstellung refers to a persons predisposition to solve a given problem in a specific manner even though better or more appropriate methods of solvi ...

                                               

Elicitation technique

An elicitation technique is any of a number of data collection techniques used in anthropology, cognitive science, counseling, education, knowledge engineering, linguistics, management, philosophy, psychology, or other fields to gather knowledge ...

                                               

Embodied bilingual language

Embodied bilingual language, also known as L2 embodiment, is the idea that people mentally simulate their actions, perceptions, and emotions when speaking and understanding a second language as with their first language. It is closely related to ...

                                               

Embodied cognition

Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism. The features of cognition include high level mental constructs and performance on various cogn ...

                                               

Embodied cognitive science

Embodied cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of research, the aim of which is to explain the mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior. It comprises three main methodologies: the modeling of psychological and biological systems in a ...

                                               

Embodied embedded cognition

Embodied embedded cognition is a philosophical theoretical position in cognitive science, closely related to situated cognition, embodied cognition, embodied cognitive science and dynamical systems theory. The theory states that intelligent behav ...

                                               

Epidemiology of representations

Epidemiology of representations, or cultural epidemiology, provides a conceptual framework for explaining cultural phenomena by how mental representations get distributed within a population. The theory appeals to an analogy with medical epidemio ...

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