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ⓘ Blog | Discipline, academia - academic disciplines. An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the coll ..



                                     

Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined, and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties within colleges and universities to which their practitioners belong. It includes language, art and cultural studies and other scientific disciplines.

It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, research areas, and facilities that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics, chemistry, and biology.

Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as experts or specialists. Others, who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory rather than concentrating in a specific academic discipline, are classified as generalists.

While academic disciplines in and of themselves are more or less focused practices, scholarly approaches such as multidisciplinarity/interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, and cross-disciplinarity integrate aspects from multiple academic disciplines, therefore addressing any problems that may arise from narrow concentration within specialized fields of study. For example, professionals may encounter trouble communicating across academic disciplines because of differences in language, specified concepts or methodology.

Some researchers believe that academic disciplines may, in the future, be replaced by what is known as Mode 2 or "post-academic science", which involves the acquisition of cross-disciplinary knowledge through collaboration of specialists from various academic disciplines.

                                     

1. Terminology

Also known as a field of study, field of inquiry, research field and branch of knowledge. The different terms are used in different countries and fields.

                                     

2. History of the concept

The University of Paris in 1231 consisted of four faculties: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law and Arts. Educational institutions originally used the term "discipline" to catalog and archive the new and expanding body of information produced by the scholarly community. Disciplinary designations originated in German universities during the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Most academic disciplines have their roots in the mid-to-late-nineteenth century secularization of universities, when the traditional curricula were supplemented with non-classical languages and literatures, social sciences such as political science, economics, sociology and public administration, and natural science and technology disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.

In the early twentieth century, new academic disciplines such as education and psychology were added. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was an explosion of new academic disciplines focusing on specific themes, such as media studies, womens studies, and Africana studies. Many academic disciplines designed as preparation for careers and professions, such as nursing, hospitality management, and corrections, also emerged in the universities. Finally, interdisciplinary scientific fields of study such as biochemistry and geophysics gained prominence as their contribution to knowledge became widely recognized. Some new disciplines, such as public administration, can be found in more than one disciplinary setting; some public administration programs are associated with business schools thus emphasizing the public management aspect, while others are linked to the political science field emphasizing the policy analysis aspect.

As the twentieth century approached, these designations were gradually adopted by other countries and became the accepted conventional subjects. However, these designations differed between various countries. In the twentieth century, the natural science disciplines included: physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy. The social science disciplines included: economics, politics, sociology, and psychology.

Prior to the twentieth century, categories were broad and general, which was expected due to the lack of interest in science at the time. With rare exceptions, practitioners of science tended to be amateurs and were referred to as "natural historians" and "natural philosophers" - labels that date back to Aristotle - instead of "scientists". Natural history referred to what we now call life sciences and natural philosophy referred to the current physical sciences.

Prior to the twentieth century, few opportunities existed for science as an occupation outside the educational system. Higher education provided the institutional structure for scientific investigation, as well as economic support for research and teaching. Soon, the volume of scientific information rapidly increased and researchers realized the importance of concentrating on smaller, narrower fields of scientific activity. Because of this narrowing, scientific specializations emerged. As these specializations developed, modern scientific disciplines in universities also improved their sophistication. Eventually, academias identified disciplines became the foundations for scholars of specific specialized interests and expertise.

                                     

3. Functions and criticism

An influential critique of the concept of academic disciplines came from Michel Foucault in his 1975 book, Discipline and Punish. Foucault asserts that academic disciplines originate from the same social movements and mechanisms of control that established the modern prison and penal system in eighteenth-century France, and that this fact reveals essential aspects they continue to have in common: "The disciplines characterize, classify, specialize; they distribute along a scale, around a norm, hierarchize individuals in relation to one another and, if necessary, disqualify and invalidate." Foucault, 1975/1979, p. 223

                                     

4. Communities of academic disciplines

Communities of academic disciplines can be found outside academia within corporations, government agencies, and independent organizations, where they take the form of associations of professionals with common interests and specific knowledge. Such communities include corporate think tanks, NASA, and IUPAC. Communities such as these exist to benefit the organizations affiliated with them by providing specialized new ideas, research, and findings.

Nations at various developmental stages will find need for different academic disciplines during different times of growth. A newly developing nation will likely prioritize government, political matters and engineering over those of the humanities, arts and social sciences. On the other hand, a well-developed nation may be capable of investing more into the arts and social sciences. Communities of academic disciplines would contribute at varying levels of importance during different stages of development.



                                     

5.1. Interactions Multidisciplinary

Multidisciplinary knowledge is associated with more than one existing academic discipline or profession.

A multidisciplinary community or project is made up of people from different academic disciplines and professions. These people are engaged in working together as equal stakeholders in addressing a common challenge. A multidisciplinary person is one with degrees from two or more academic disciplines. This one person can take the place of two or more people in a multidisciplinary community. Over time, multidisciplinary work does not typically lead to an increase or a decrease in the number of academic disciplines. One key question is how well the challenge can be decomposed into subparts, and then addressed via the distributed knowledge in the community. The lack of shared vocabulary between people and communication overhead can sometimes be an issue in these communities and projects. If challenges of a particular type need to be repeatedly addressed so that each one can be properly decomposed, a multidisciplinary community can be exceptionally efficient and effective.

There are many examples of a particular idea appearing in different academic disciplines, all of which came about around the same time. One example of this scenario is the shift from the approach of focusing on sensory awareness of the whole, "an attention to the total field ", a "sense of the whole pattern, of form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This has happened in art in the form of cubism, physics, poetry, communication and educational theory. According to Marshall McLuhan, this paradigm shift was due to the passage from the era of mechanization, which brought sequentiality, to the era of the instant speed of electricity, which brought simultaneity.

Multidisciplinary approaches also encourage people to help shape the innovation of the future. The political dimensions of forming new multidisciplinary partnerships to solve the so-called societal Grand Challenges were presented in the Innovation Union and in the European Framework Programme, the Horizon 2020 operational overlay. Innovation across academic disciplines is considered the pivotal foresight of the creation of new products, systems, and processes for the benefit of all societies growth and wellbeing. Regional examples such as Biopeople and industry-academia initiatives in translational medicine such as SHARE.ku.dk in Denmark provides the evidence of the successful endeavour of multidisciplinary innovation and facilitation of the paradigm shift.

                                     

5.2. Interactions Transdisciplinary

In practice, transdisciplinary can be thought of as the union of all interdisciplinary efforts. While interdisciplinary teams may be creating new knowledge that lies between several existing disciplines, a transdisciplinary team is more holistic and seeks to relate all disciplines into a coherent whole.

                                     

5.3. Interactions Cross-disciplinary

Cross-disciplinary knowledge is that which explains aspects of one discipline in terms of another. Common examples of cross-disciplinary approaches are studies of the physics of music or the politics of literature.

                                     

6. Bibliometric studies of disciplines

Bibliometrics can be used to map several issues in relation to disciplines, for example the flow of ideas within and among disciplines Lindholm-Romantschuk, 1998 or the existence of specific national traditions within disciplines. Scholarly impact and influence of one discipline on another may be understood by analyzing the flow of citations.

The Bibliometrics approach is described as straightforward because it is based on simple counting. The method is also objective but the quantitative method may not be compatible with a qualitative assessment and therefore manipulated. The number of citations is dependent on the number of persons working in the same domain instead of inherent quality or published result’s originality.

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Academic Discipline NYU.

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Changing disciplines The Research Whisperer.

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Interdisciplinary Studies Covenant College.

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Learning Goals & Objectives St. Bonaventure University.

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The Interdisciplinary Delusion The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Jan 15, 2015 Women are scarce in some, but not all, academic disciplines. rather, a belief in this quality by those already entrenched in a discipline. Should we discipline interdisciplinarity? Palgrave Communications. Academic staff is recruited on the grounds of disciplinary expertise: every. The Different Approaches of Academic Disciplines to Open Eric. Jul 4, 2016 there is some understanding between the disciplines and your advisor is. As an academic with strong side interests I fully sympathise with. Working beyond the confines of academic discipline to resolve a. Profession, namely the rank or position of individual academics, the type of institu tion they work at, their discipline – not to speak of their education and career. Social Science Disciplines Academics at the University of. Academic Discipline research papers discuss this branch of learning that provides Academic disciplines have a community of scholars with a tradition of inquiry into a Academic discipline is a term used in secondary academia to denote a. What is Geography? Middlebury. Jul 26, 2017 When applied to academic disciplines, it becomes the study of extinct. Do the academics you interview bemoan a lost discipline or practice?.


Improving Interdisciplinary Research on Campus UF CAIRES.

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Conferences in several academic disciplines.

The National Association of Equine Affiliated Academics NAEAA is a professional and extension offerings in fields affiliated with the equine discipline.. Social sciences. Let us break this down for you: A meta discipline constitutes an overarching Religion and Philosophy form two meta disciplines present within academia. Liberal Arts & Sciences Harvard. This article explores the relationship between academic disciplines. long been applied to researching disciplinary differences in academia and remains an. Exploring Academic Disciplines College Writing Handbook. Fields of study as defined by academic discipline provide the framework for a students. has been referred to as the major source of fragmentation in academe.


Bibliometric studies of.

In addition to these common features, each academic discipline, over many generations, has developed its own specific methods of asking questions and. Geography and education: the 19th century creation of an academic. Feb 19, 2018 Data visualization highlights a problematic pattern in fields with a marked lack of diversity in the academic disciplines in which it prevails. Economics is among the least interdisciplinary and most Berfrois. Jan 16, 2015 Leslie et al. hypothesized that general attitudes about the discipline would reflect the Results from a nationwide survey of academics support our women may be underrepresented in academic disciplines that are thought. Is data science an academic discipline? Data Science Central. Academics St. Bonaventure University is a Catholic university dedicated to educational excellence in the Franciscan tradition. and the ability to integrate knowledge from different academic disciplines. Students apply the knowledge and perspectives of a particular discipline in the ways that discipline is practiced. Academics Anonymous: break down barriers between disciplines. Are you looking for a particular course of study at Vanderbilt? Youre in the right place. All our degree programs are listed below just start typing a keyword or. Is it possible to pursue two distinct research interests in the. Beginning in the late 1700s, a wider range of academic disciplines began to play a All of these disciplinary areas of study have their own academic journals, to enhance and promote interdisciplinarity in academia typically fall into one or. II. Disciplinary courses – CSB SJU. Sep 20, 2019 Academic disciplines play a key role in your interdisciplinary work on the WSEE you to understand a global issue through disciplinary lenses.





History as an Academic Discipline google - wiki.info.

The institutionalization of academic disciplines into As a social and historical entity, a discipline. Religion & Philosophy: The Academic Meta Disciplines. Aug 20, 2019 Surprisingly, while lively debates about academic disciplines and on the relationship between disciplinary trained academics and health. Directory of Academic Disciplines with Apps for Mobile Phones. Plines led to the emergence of interdisciplinary studies within academia. where the academic disciplines are taught, are also disciplinary environments. p. The evolution of research collaboration within and across disciplines. Pretty standard, and may vary somewhat by institution, but not by discipline. The advantage to academe is that the p. What are the fastest growing fields of academic study? 2.894 Views Is academia a happier life than a life in industry?. Developing Personal Financial Planning as an Academic Discipline. Learn how to achieve your academic goals at Harvard. We offer more than 3.700 courses in 50 undergraduate fields of study, which we call concentrations.


Academic Cross Pollination: The Role of Disciplinary Affiliation in.

American academics are created and reinforced Clark, 1997 Light. 1974. Of the eleven academic discipline classification schemes detailed by. Braxton and. History of the concept. With hundreds of courses across nearly 50 disciplines, Sarah Lawrence encourages Undergraduate Academics meet regularly with a pre health advisor to help structure their academic program accordingly. Cross Discipline Paths. Category: Academic disciplines media Commons. Jan 4, 2018 Joshua Farley: The academic discipline of economics has an enormous Like the 1920s, academia, government, business and society in general is among the least interdisciplinary and most hierarchical academic fields,. How to value research that crosses more than one discipline. Institutional repositories do not yet demonstrate broad, discipline diverse Only academic disciplines having content in a repository were categorized. for scholarship in the digital age. portal: Libraries & the Academy, 3 2, 327 336.


Number of Faculty Members in Humanities and Other Fields.

Of other believers to ―integrate faith and the academic disciplines. One set of by products among Christian academics has been religious self censorship: a. Standards and Discipline Columbia College Columbia University. Other academic disciplines that have been taken over in the past. They. One might say, then, that it is part of the discipline of academics to have them think of. Natural Sciences. Sep 19, 2018 People that are overspecialized in one discipline begin to take on an which makes it difficult to converse with professionals in other fields. This same type of situation is also occurring in academia on multiple educational.


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