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Economic history
                                     

Economic history

Economic history is the academic study of economies or economic events of the past. Research is conducted using a combination of historical methods, statistical methods and the application of economic theory to historical situations and institutions. The field can encompass a wide variety of topics, including equality, finance, technology, labor, and business. It emphasizes historicizing the economy itself, analyzing it as a dynamic force and attempting to provide insights into the way it is structured and conceived. Often economic history overlaps with global history in its emphasis on cross-border flows and international trends in the international economy.

Using both quantitative data and qualitative sources, economic historians emphasize understanding the historical context in which major economic events take place. They often focus on the institutional dynamics of systems of production, labor, and capital, as well as the economys impact on society, culture, and language. Scholars of the discipline also study the various schools of economic thought such as mainstream economics, Marxian economics, the Chicago school of economics, and Keynesian economics.

Sub-disciplines of the field include financial and business history, which overlaps with areas of social history such as demographic and labor history. The quantitative branch - in this case, econometric - study of economic history is also known as cliometrics. Historians have recently become more interested in another branch of economic history, often called the history of capitalism.

                                     

1. History

In late-nineteenth-century Germany, scholars at a number of universities, led by Gustav von Schmoller, developed the historical school of economic history. It argued that there were no universal truths in history, emphasizing the importance of historical context without quantitative analysis. This historical approach dominated German and French scholarship for most of the 20th century. The historical school of economics included other economists such as Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter who reasoned that careful analysis of human actions, cultural norms, historical context, and mathematical support was key to historical analysis. The approach was spread to Great Britain by William Ashley University of Oxford and dominated British economic history for much of the 20th century. Britains first professor in the subject was George Unwin at the University of Manchester. In France, economic history was heavily influenced by the Annales School from the early 20th century to the present. It exerts a worldwide influence through its Journal Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales.

Treating economic history as a discrete academic discipline has been a contentious issue for many years. Academics at the London School of Economics and the University of Cambridge had numerous disputes over the separation of economics and economic history in the interwar era. Cambridge economists believed that pure economics involved a component of economic history and that the two were inseparably entangled. Those at the LSE believed that economic history warranted its own courses, research agenda and academic chair separated from mainstream economics.

In the initial period of the subjects development, the LSE position of separating economic history from economics won out. Many universities in the UK developed independent programmes in economic history rooted in the LSE model. Indeed, the Economic History Society had its inauguration at LSE in 1926 and the University of Cambridge eventually established its own economic history programme. However, the past twenty years have witnessed the widespread closure of these separate programmes in the UK and the integration of the discipline into either history or economics departments. Only the LSE and the University of Edinburgh retain a separate economic history department and stand-alone undergraduate and graduate programme in economic history. Cambridge, Glasgow, the LSE and Oxford together train the vast majority of economic historians coming through the British higher education system today.

Yale University economist Irving Fisher wrote in 1933 on the relationship between economics and economic history in his "Debt-Deflation Theory of Great Depressions":

The study of dis-equilibrium may proceed in either of two ways. We may take as our unit for study an actual historical case of great dis-equilibrium, such as, say, the panic of 1873; or we may take as our unit for study any constituent tendency, such as, say, deflation, and discover its general laws, relations to, and combinations with, other tendencies. The former study revolves around events, or facts; the latter, around tendencies. The former is primarily economic history; the latter is primarily economic science. Both sorts of studies are proper and important. Each helps the other. The panic of 1873 can only be understood in light of the various tendencies involved - deflation and other; and deflation can only be understood in the light of various historical manifestations - 1873 and other.

There is a school of thought among economic historians that splits economic history - the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past - from historical economics - testing the generality of economic theory using historical episodes. US economic historian Charles P. Kindleberger explained this position in his 1990 book Historical Economics: Art or Science?. Further, economic historian Robert Skidelsky University of Cambridge argued that economic theory often employs ahistorical models and methodologies that do not take into account historical context.

The new economic history of the 1960s, also known as cliometrics, refers to the systematic use of economic theory and/or econometric techniques to the study of economic history. The term cliometrics was originally coined by Jonathan R. T. Hughes and Stanley Reiter in 1960 and refers to Clio, who was the muse of history and heroic poetry in Greek mythology. One of the most famous cliometric economic historians is Douglass North, who argued that it is the task of economic history to elucidate the historical dimensions of economies through time. Cliometricians argue their approach is necessary because the application of theory is crucial in writing solid economic history, while historians generally oppose this view warning against the risk of generating anachronisms. Early cliometrics was a type of counterfactual history. However, counterfactualism is no longer its distinctive feature. It combines neoclassical economics with quantitative methods in order to explain human choices based on constraints. Some have argued that cliometrics had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s and that it is now neglected by economists and historians. In response to North and Robert Fogels Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1993, Harvard University economist Claudia Goldin argued proclaimed that:

economic history is not a handmaiden of economics but a distinct field of scholarship. Economic history was a scholarly discipline long before it became cliometrics. Its practitioners were economists and historians studying the histories of economies. The new economic history, or cliometrics, formalized economic history in a manner similar to the injection of mathematical models and statistics into the rest of economics.

A major sub-field of economic history is the history of economic growth and development. MIT economist Peter Temin noted that this field is intricately connected with economic history, as it explores the growth of economies with different technologies, innovations, and institutions. Studying economic growth has been popular for years among economists and historians who have sought to understand why some economies have grown faster than others. Some of the early texts in the field include Walt Whitman Rostows The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto 1971 which described how advanced economies grow after overcoming certain hurdles and advancing to the next stage in development. Another economist, Alexander Gerschenkron, complicated this theory with works on how economies develop in non-Western countries, as discussed in Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays 1962. A more recent work is Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinsons Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty 2012 which pioneered a new field of persistence studies, emphasizing the path-dependent stages of growth. Other notable books on the topic include Kenneth Pomeranzs The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy 2000 and David S. Landess The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some are So Rich and Some So Poor 1998.

Another development was the influence of Karl Marx and Marxian economics. Marx used historical analysis to interpret the role of class and class as a central issue in history. He debated with the "classical" economists a term he coined, including Adam Smith and David Ricardo. In turn, Marxs legacy in economic history has been to critique the findings of neoclassical economists. Marxist analysis also confronts economic determinism, the theory that economic relationships are the foundation of political and societal institutions. Marx abstracted the idea of a "capitalist mode of production" as a way of identifying the transition from feudalism to capitalism. This has influenced some scholars, such as Maurice Dobb, to argue that feudalism declined because of peasants struggles for freedom and the growing inefficiency of feudalism as a system of production. In turn, in what was later coined the Brenner debate, Paul Sweezy, a Marxian economist, challenged Dob s definition of feudalism and its focus only on western Europe.

In the United States, the field of economic history has in recent decades been largely subsumed into other fields of economics and is seen as a form of applied economics. As a consequence, there are no specialist economic history graduate programs at any universities anywhere in the country. Economic history remains as a special field component of regular economics or history PhD programs at leading universities, including University of California, Berkeley, Harvard University, Northwestern University, Princeton University, the University of Chicago and Yale University.

In recent decades, and notably since the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, scholars have recently become more interested in a field called new economic history. Scholars have tended to move away from narrowly quantitative studies toward institutional, social, and cultural history affecting the evolution of economies. Columbia University economist Charles Calomiris argued that this new field showed how historical path-dependent processes governed changes in institutions and markets. However, this trend has been criticized, most forcefully by Francesco Boldizzoni, as a form of economic imperialism "extending the neoclassical explanatory model to the realm of social relations." Conversely, economists in other specializations have started to write on topics concerning economic history.

A major development in the discipline of economic history was the publication of Thomas Pikettys Capital in the Twenty-First Century 2013. The book described the rise in wealth and income inequality since the 18th century, arguing that large concentrations of wealth lead to social and economic instability. Piketty also advocated a system of global progressive wealth taxes to correct rising inequality. The book was selected as a New York Times best seller and received numerous awards. The book was well received by some of the worlds major economists, including Paul Krugman, Robert Solow, and Ben Bernanke. Books in response to Pikettys book include After Piketty: The Agenda for Economics and Inequality, by Heather Boushey, J. Bradford DeLong, and Marshall Steinbaum eds. 2017, Pocket Piketty by Jesper Roine 2017, and Anti-Piketty: Capital for the 21st Century, by Jean-Philippe Delsol, Nicolas Lecaussin, Emmanuel Martin 2017. One economist noted that Pikettys book was "Nobel-Prize worthy" and had changed the global discussion on how economic historians study inequality. It has also sparked new conversations in the disciplines of public policy.

                                     

2. History of capitalism

A new field calling itself the "history of capitalism" has emerged in US history departments since about the year 2000. It includes many topics traditionally associated with the field of economic history, such as insurance, banking and regulation, the political dimension of business, and the impact of capitalism on the middle classes, the poor and women and minorities. The field utilizes the existing research of business history, but has sought to make it more relevant to the concerns of history departments in the United States, including by having limited or no discussion of individual business enterprises.

Scholars have critiqued the history of capitalism because it does not focus on systems of production, circulation, and distribution. Some have criticized its lack of social scientific methods and its ideological biases. As a result, a new academic journal, Capitalism and History, was founded at the University of Pennsylvania, under the direction of Francesco Boldizzoni University of Helsinki, Marc Flandreau University of Pennsylvania, and Carl Wennerlind Barnard, Columbia University, to widen the scope of the field. The journals goal is to bring together "historians and social scientists interested in the material and intellectual aspects of modern economic life." Historians of capitalism have countered these critiques, citing the issues with economic history. As University of Chicago professor of history Jonathan Levy states, "Modern economic history began with industrialization and urbanization, and, even then, environmental considerations were subsidiary, if not nonexistent."

                                     

3. Academic journals and societies

The first journal of economic history was The Economic History Review, founded in 1927, as the main publication of the Economic History Society. The first journal featured a publication by Professor Sir William Ashley, the first Professor of Economic History in the English-speaking world, who described the emerging field of economic history. The discipline existed alongside long-standing fields such as political history, religious history, and military history as one that focused on humans interactions with visible happenings. He continued, primarily and unless expressly extended, the history of actual human practice with respect to the material basis of life. The visible happenings with regard-to use the old formula-to "the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth" form our wide enough field.

Later, the Economic History Association established another academic journal, The Journal of Economic History, in 1941 as a way of expanding the discipline in the United States. The first president of the Economic History Association, Edwin F. Gay, described the aim of economic history was to provide new perspectives in the economics and history disciplines: An adequate equipment with two skills, that of the historian and the economist, is not easily acquired, but experience shows that it is both necessary and possible. Other related academic journals have broadened the lens with which economic history is studied. These interdisciplinary journals include the Business History Review, European Review of Economic History, Enterprise and Society, Financial History Review, and Journal of the History of Economic Thought.

The International Economic History Association, an association of close to 50 member organizations, recognizes some of the major academic organizations dedicated to study of economic history: the Business History Conference, Economic History Association, Economic History Society, European Association of Business Historians, and the International Social History Association.



                                     

4. Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economic historians

  • Arthur Lewis won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1979 for his contributions in the field of economic development through historical context.
  • Merton Miller, who started his academic career teaching economic history at the LSE, won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1990 with Harry Markowitz and William F. Sharpe.
  • Simon Kuznets won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "the Nobel Memorial Prize" in 1971 "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development".
  • Milton Friedman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1976 for "his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy".
  • John Hicks won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1972 his contributions to general equilibrium theory and welfare theory.
  • Robert Fogel and Douglass North won the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1993 for "having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change".
                                     

5.1. Notable works of economic history Foundational works

  • David Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation 1817
  • Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom 1944
  • Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 1963
  • Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy 1867
  • Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776
  • Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: Origins of Our Time 1944
                                     

5.2. Notable works of economic history General

  • Kevin ORourke and Ronald Findlay, Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium 2007
  • Gregory Clark, A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World 2007
  • Robert C. Allen, Global Economic History: A Very Short Introduction 2011
  • Michael Lind, Land of Promise: An Economic History of the United States 2012
                                     

5.3. Notable works of economic history Ancient economies

  • Peter Temin, The Roman Market Economy 2012
  • Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century 2017
  • Moses Finley, The Ancient Economy 1973
                                     

5.4. Notable works of economic history Economic growth and development

  • Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays 1962
  • Jeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time 2005
  • Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy 2000
  • David S. Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some are So Rich and Some So Poor 1998
  • Robert J. Gordon, The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War 2016
  • Walt Whitman Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto 1971
  • Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom 1999
  • Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty 2012
  • Joel Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress 1990
                                     

5.5. Notable works of economic history History of money

  • Christine Desan, Making Money: Coin, Currency, and the Coming of Capitalism 2014
  • David Graeber, Debt: The First 5000 Years 2011
  • William N. Goetzmann, Money Changes Everything: How Finance Made Civilization Possible 2016
                                     

5.6. Notable works of economic history Business history

  • William D. Cohan, Money and Power: How Goldman Sachs Came to Rule the World
  • Jean Strouse, Morgan: American Financier 1999
  • David Nasaw, Andrew Carnegie 2006
  • Ron Chernow, The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance 1990
  • David Cannadine, Mellon: An American Life 2006
  • Alfred D. Chandler Jr., The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business 1977
  • Naomi Lamoreaux, The Great Merger Movement in American Business, 1895–1904 1985
  • Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. 1998
                                     

5.7. Notable works of economic history Financial history

  • Barry Eichengreen, Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System 2010
  • Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World 2008
  • Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly 2009
  • Mark Blyth, Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea 2013
  • Barry Eichengreen, Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System 1996
  • Liaquat Ahamed, Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World 2009
  • Harold James, International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods 1996
  • Benn Steil, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order 2013
  • Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy 2006
  • Charles W. Calomiris and Stephen H. Haber, Fragile by Design: The Political Origins of Banking Crises and Scarce Credit 2014


                                     

5.8. Notable works of economic history Globalization and inequality

  • Jeffrey G. Williamson and Kevin ORourke, Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth-century Atlantic Economy 1999
  • Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman, The Triumph of Injustice: How the Rich Dodge Taxes and How to Make Them Pay 2019
  • Gabriel Zucman, The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens 2015
  • Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History 2014
  • Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century 2013
  • Robert Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman, Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery 1974
  • William J. Bernstein, A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World from Prehistory to Today 2008
  • Harold James, The End of Globalization: Lessons from the Great Depression 2009
  • Thomas Piketty, Capital and Ideology 2020
  • Claudia Goldin, Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women 1990
  • Niall Ferguson, The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700-2000 2001
  • Thomas Piketty, The Economics of Inequality 2015

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