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Musicology

Musicology for music and λογος for domain of study) is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is often more scientific in focus. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist. Musicology traditionally is divided in three main branches: historical musicology, systematic musicology and ethnomusicology. Historical musicologists mostly study the history of the so-called Western classical tradition, though the study of music history need not be limited to that. Ethnomusicologists draw from anthropology particularly field research to understand how and why people make music. Systematic musicology includes music theory, aesthetics, pedagogy, musical acoustics, the science and technology of musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the cognitive modeling of music. When musicologists carry out research using computers, their research often falls under the field of computational musicology. Music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology which is sometimes considered more closely affiliated with health fields, and other times regarded as part of musicology proper.

                                               

American Musicological Society

The American Musicological Society is a musicological organization founded in 1934 to advance scholarly research in the various fields of music as a branch of learning and scholarship. It grew out of a small contingent of the Music Teachers National Association and, more directly, the New York Musicological Society. Its founders were George S. Dickinson, Carl Engel, Gustave Reese, Helen Heffron Roberts, Joseph Schillinger, Charles Seeger, Harold Spivacke, Oliver Strunk, and Joseph Yasser. Its first president was Otto Kinkeldey, the first American to receive an appointment as professor of musicology.

                                               

Anhemitonic scale

Musicology commonly classifies scales as either hemitonic or anhemitonic. Hemitonic scales contain one or more semitones, while anhemitonic scales do not contain semitones. For example, in traditional Japanese music, the anhemitonic yo scale is contrasted with the hemitonic in scale. The simplest and most commonly used scale in the world is the atritonic anhemitonic "major" pentatonic scale. The whole tone scale is also anhemitonic. A special subclass of the hemitonic scales is the cohemitonic scales. Cohemitonic scales contain two or more semitones making them hemitonic such that two or more of the semitones appear consecutively in scale order. For example, the Hungarian minor scale in C includes F ♯, G, and A ♭ in that order, with a semitone between F ♯ and G, and then a semitone between G and A ♭. Ancohemitonic scales, in contrast, either contain no semitones and thus are anhemitonic, or contain semitones being hemitonic where none of the semitones appear consecutively in scale order. Some authors, however, do not include anhemitonic scales in their definition of ancohemitonic scales. Examples of ancohemitonic scales are numerous, as ancohemitonia is favored over cohemitonia in the worlds musics: diatonic scale, melodic major/melodic minor, Hungarian major scale, harmonic major scale, harmonic minor scale, and the so-called octatonic scale. Hemitonia is also quantified by the number of semitones present. Unhemitonic scales have only one semitone; dihemitonic scales have 2 semitones; trihemitonic scales have 3 semitones, etc. In the same way that an anhemitonic scale is less dissonant than a hemitonic scale, an anhemitonic scale is less dissonant than a dihemitonic scale. The qualification of cohemitonia versus ancohemitonia combines with the cardinality of semitones, giving terms like: dicohemitonic, triancohemitonic, and so forth. An ancohemitonic scale is less dissonant than a cohemitonic scale, the count of their semitones being equal. In general, the number of semitones is more important to the perception of dissonance than the adjacency or lack thereof of any pair of them. Additional adjacency between semitones once adjacency is present does not necessarily increase the dissonance, the count of semitones again being equal. Related to these semitone classifications are tritonic and atritonic scales. Tritonic scales contain one or more tritones, while atritonic scales do not contain tritones. A special monotonic relationship exists between semitones and tritones as scales are built by projection, q.v. below. The harmonic relationship of all these categories comes from the perception that semitones and tritones are the severest of dissonances, and that avoiding them is often desirable. The most-used scales across the planet are anhemitonic. Of the remaining hemitonic scales, the ones most used are ancohemitonic.

                                               

Art music

Art music is music considered to be of high aesthetic value. It typically implies advanced structural and theoretical considerations or a written musical tradition. In this context, the terms "serious" or "cultivated" are frequently used to present a contrast with ordinary, everyday music.

                                               

The Berkeley Treatise

The Berkeley Treatise is an anonymous 14th Century compilation of musicological writings. The treatise is in five sections: concerning fundamentals and mode, discant, mensuration, musica speculativa and tuning. The third section on mensuration is a version of the Libellus cantus mensurabilis by Johannes de Muris, dated to 1375.

                                               

Bibliography of Music Literature

The Bibliography of Music Literature, also known as BMS or BMS online, is an international bibliography of literature on music. It considers all kind of music and includes both current and older literature. Since 1968, the BMS editorial staff has been working as the German committee for RILM, too. The bibliography includes monographs, master’s theses and doctoral dissertations, articles and reviews from journals, Festschriften, conference proceedings, yearbooks, anthologies, and essays from critical reports. It contains printed media as well as online resources, data media, sound recordings, audiovisual media, and microforms. Each record provides the title in the original language, full bibliographic data, a keyword index, and mostly an abstract. Currently, BMS online has more than 315.000 records of literature on music. It is supplemented by the OLC-SSG Musicology, which incorporates the contents of some more 150 music journals from 1993 onward. BMS online participates actively on ViFaMusik, the central gateway for music and musicology in Germany.

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