ⓘ Blog | Academic disciplines - Clinical physiology, Communication studies, Comparative law, Construction history, Critical terrorism studies, Curriculum studies ..


Clinical physiology

Clinical physiology is both an academic discipline within the medical sciences and a clinical medical specialty for physicians in the health care systems of Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Clinical Physiology can also be more broadly defined as the application of the knowledge of human physiology to patients in a health care setting. As a specialty for medical doctors, Clinical Physiology is a diagnostic specialty to which patients are referred to undergo specialized tests of functions of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. Testing methods include evaluation of electrical activity, blood pressure, and air flow. In addition, Clinical Physiologists measure movements, velocities, and metabolic processes through imaging techniques such as ultrasound, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and nuclear medicine scanners and positron emission tomography with and without CT).


Communication studies

Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication and behavior, patterns of communication in interpersonal relationships, social interactions and communication in different cultures. Communication is commonly defined as giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions effectively. Communication studies is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge that encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation at a level of individual agency and interaction to social and cultural communication systems at a macro level. Scholarly communication theorists focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of communication, examining statistics in order to help substantiate claims. The range of social scientific methods to study communication has been expanding. Communication researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of communication. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques. As a field of study, communication is applied to journalism, business, mass media, public relations, marketing, news and television broadcasting, interpersonal and intercultural communication, education, public administration - and beyond. As all spheres of human activity and conveyance are affected by the interplay between social communication structure and individual agency, communication studies has gradually expanded its focus to other domains, such as health, medicine, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, and the role of communicative activity in the development of scientific knowledge.


Comparative law

Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries. More specifically, it involves the study of the different legal "systems" in existence in the world, including the common law, the civil law, socialist law, Canon law, Jewish Law, Islamic law, Hindu law, and Chinese law. It includes the description and analysis of foreign legal systems, even where no explicit comparison is undertaken. The importance of comparative law has increased enormously in the present age of internationalism, economic globalization, and democratization.


Construction history


Critical terrorism studies

Critical terrorism studies applies a critical theory approach rooted in counter-hegemonic and politically progressive critical theory to the study of terrorism. With links to the Frankfurt School of critical theory and the Aberystwyth School of critical security studies, CTS seeks to understand terrorism as a social construction, or a label, that is applied to certain violent acts through a range of political, legal and academic processes. It also seeks to understand and critique dominant forms of counter-terrorism.


Curriculum studies

Curriculum studies is a concentration within curriculum and instruction concerned with understanding curricula as an active force of human educational experience.


Design studies

Design Studies is an academic discipline that pursues a critical understanding of design and its effects through analytical and practical modes of inquiry. Its origins can be traced to design history where the field first got its start before slowly expanding to include larger themes and more varied subject matters. In that light, Victor Margolin, one of the founders of the discipline in the US, proposes Design Studies as a term that comprises various design researches and relates them to one another. As a highly interdisciplinary field, Design Studies references many scholarship paradigms and focuses on how design knowledge is developed, articulated and communicated. It therefore incorporates an expansive set of evolving methodologies and theories that are drawn from key thinkers and theorists from the field itself, but also from several related fields such as, the humanities, the social sciences, the sciences. Design Studies also generates scholarly work in the fields of architecture, urban planning and policy, and spatial studies. Design Studies not only considers objects, places and systems, it investigates their meanings, contexts, possibilities and consequences. Design Studies recognizes that design, as a practice, is merely one facet of a much larger paradigm. It examines, probes, and questions the role of design in shaping past and present personal and cultural values, especially in light of how they shape the future. The subjects of Design Studies are inherently fluid while being anchored to a core body of work and scholarship that revolves around broader themes such as ethics, environmental sustainment, and social sustainability. The American author, editor and educator Susan Yelavich, encapsulates the terrain of Design Studies as embracing "two broad perspectives - one that focuses inward on the nature of design and one that looks outward to the circumstances that shape it, and conversely, the circumstances design changes, intentionally or not." Masters programs in Design Studies are offered in the United States at Carnegie Mellon School of Design, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Parsons School of Design, and IIT Institute of Design.


Economic history

Economic history is the academic study of economies or economic events of the past. Research is conducted using a combination of historical methods, statistical methods and the application of economic theory to historical situations and institutions. The field can encompass a wide variety of topics, including equality, finance, technology, labor, and business. It emphasizes historicizing the economy itself, analyzing it as a dynamic force and attempting to provide insights into the way it is structured and conceived. Often economic history overlaps with global history in its emphasis on cross-border flows and international trends in the international economy. Using both quantitative data and qualitative sources, economic historians emphasize understanding the historical context in which major economic events take place. They often focus on the institutional dynamics of systems of production, labor, and capital, as well as the economys impact on society, culture, and language. Scholars of the discipline also study the various schools of economic thought such as mainstream economics, Marxian economics, the Chicago school of economics, and Keynesian economics. Sub-disciplines of the field include financial and business history, which overlaps with areas of social history such as demographic and labor history. The quantitative branch - in this case, econometric - study of economic history is also known as cliometrics. Historians have recently become more interested in another branch of economic history, often called the history of capitalism.


English studies

English studies is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline. It involves the study and exploration of texts created in English literature. English includes: the study of literature written in the English language, the majority of which comes from Britain, the United States, and Ireland ; English composition, including writing essays, short stories, and poetry; English language arts, including the study of grammar, usage, and style; and English sociolinguistics, including discourse analysis of written and spoken texts in the English language, the history of the English language, English language learning and teaching, and the study of World Englishes. English linguistics is usually treated as a distinct discipline, taught in a department of linguistics. The disciplinary divide between a dominant literature or usage orientation is one motivation for the division of the North American Modern Language Association MLA into two subgroups. At universities in non-English-speaking countries, the same department often covers all aspects of English studies, including linguistics: this is reflected, for example, in the structure and activities of the European Society for the Study of English ESSE. It is common for departments of English to offer courses and scholarship in the areas of the English language, literature including literary criticism and literary theory, public speaking and speech-writing, rhetoric, composition studies, creative writing, philology and etymology, journalism, poetry, publishing, literacy, area studies especially American studies, the philosophy of language, theater and play-writing, screenwriting, communication studies, technical communication, cultural studies, critical theory, gender studies, ethnic studies, disability studies, digital media and electronic publishing, film studies and other media studies, and various courses in the liberal arts and humanities, among others. In most English-speaking countries, the study at all educational levels of texts produced in non-English languages takes place in other departments, such as departments of foreign language or of comparative literature.


Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect. Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space, and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis. Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by a the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems, b the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and c the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that spurred this development included the publication of Rachel Carsons landmark environmental book Silent Spring along with major environmental issues becoming very public, such as the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, and the Cuyahoga River of Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire" also in 1969, and helped increase the visibility of environmental issues and create this new field of study.

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